“Chicago Style” is used by many disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, especially history. The style is described in several guides available at the circulation desk at Feinberg Library:
Other online guides to Chicago style include:
Below are sample citations for many different forms of material. “Notes” are the format used in a footnote or endnote. “Shortened notes” are for citing the item the second time and beyond. Bibliography entries, in alphabetical order, follow the notes.
To see a sample paper that puts footnotes and bibliography in context, see https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/cmos_nb_sample_paper.html.
In a footnote or endnote, cite specific pages quoted or referred to. In a bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or article.
Items consulted online should include a reference to their location, either an URL or the name of a database. Journal articles should use a DOI if one is available. If no page numbers are available, refer to a specific chapter or section.
Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press, 2010.
Fields, Karen E., and Barbara J. Fields. Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life. London: Verso, 2012.
Countryman, Edward. “‘Out of the Bounds of the Law’: Northern Land Rioters in the Eighteenth Century.” In The American Revolution, edited by Alfred F. Young, 37–69. DeKalb, Ill.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976.
Young, Alfred F., ed. The American Revolution. DeKalb, Ill.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976.
Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. Translated by Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 2008.
Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family, from Slavery to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853. Auburn: Derby and Miller, 1853. https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/northup/northup.html.
Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. Race for Profit: How Banks and the Real Estate Industry Undermined Black Homeownership. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2019. Kindle.
Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43, no. 6 (1991): 1241–1299. https://doi.org/10.2307/1229039.
Du Bois, W. E. B. “Education and Work.” Journal of Negro Education 1, no. 1 (1932): 60–74.
Kelley, Robin D. G. “‘We Are Not What We Seem’: Rethinking Black Working-Class Opposition in the Jim Crow South.” Journal of American History 80, no. 1 (1993): 75–112. JSTOR.
Guiry, Eric, Bradford M. Jones, Susan deFrance, James E. Bruseth, Jeff Durst, and Michael P. Richards. “Animal Husbandry and Colonial Adaptive Behavior: Isotopic Insights from the La Belle Shipwreck Fauna.” Historical Archaeology 52, no. 4 (December 1, 2018): 684–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41636-018-0142-7.
Bruno, Debra. “It Turned out My Hudson Valley Dutch Ancestors Were Slave Owners. Why Had I Never Known That?” Washington Post, July 26, 2020. Nexis Uni.
Buchanan, Larry, Quoctrung Bui, and Jugal K. Patel. “Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History.” New York Times, July 3, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/07/03/us/george-floyd-protests-crowd-size.html.
Kelley, Robin D. G. “What Did Cedric Robinson Mean by Racial Capitalism?” Boston Review, January 12, 2017. https://bostonreview.net/race/robin-d-g-kelley-what-did-cedric-robinson-mean-racial-capitalism.
Newsome, Bree. “The Movement’s Generation Gap.” Atlantic, April 2, 2018, 86–87.
Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.
Dabhoiwala, Fara. “Speech and Slavery in the West Indies.” Review of Tacky’s Revolt by Vincent Brown. New York Review of Books, August 20, 2020. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2020/08/20/speech-slavery-west-indies/.
Note: If you are accessing a show or film via a streaming service rather than on physical media, you can replace everything after the airing information with the relevant URL.
Jensen, Jeff, and Damon Lindelof, writers. Watchmen, season 1, episode 8, “A God Walks into Abar.” Directed by Nicole Kassell, featuring Regina King and Don Johnson. Aired December 8, 2019, HBO.
McQueen, Steve, dir. 12 Years a Slave. 2013; Beverly Hills, CA: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2014. DVD.
Harvey, David. “David Harvey on Capital.” Interview by Daniel Denvir. The Dig, June 20, 2018. Audio, 1:10:42. https://www.thedigradio.com/podcast/david-harvey-on-capital/.
Scott, Julius. “The Common Wind: Currents of Afro-American Communication in the Era of the Haitian Revolution.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1987.
Include a date of publication or revision when possible; otherwise include an access date (as in example note 1).
Black Lives Matter. “BLM’s #WhatMatters2020.” Accessed July 31, 2020. https://blacklivesmatter.com/what-matters-2020/.
Carroll, Antionette. “Designing for Justice.” Filmed May 2019 at TEDxHerndon, Herndon, VA. Video, 12:46. https://www.ted.com/talks/antionette_carroll_designing_for_justice.
SUNY Plattsburgh. “Institutional Diversity, Equity and Inclusion.” Last modified July 17, 2020. https://www.plattsburgh.edu/plattslife/diversity/index.html.
If only mentioned in passing, social media can be cited in the text or notes and eliminated from the bibliography. If it is an important source for work, add a bibliography entry.
Matt Bruenig argued on Twitter: “Trekking poles should be outlawed in ultramarathon competitions” (@mattbruenig, July 29, 2020).
North Country Underground Railroad Museum. “Work has begun on the raised bed celebrating the ‘African American Diaspora of Food Seeds & Plants.’” Instagram photo, June 18, 2020. https://www.instagram.com/p/CBmILaIJtKh/.
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.