Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Chicago/Turabian Style Guide: Notes-Bibliography Style

LibGuide for Chicago/Turabian Style Citation

Introduction to Chicago/Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style

“Chicago Style” is used by many disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, especially history. The style is described in several guides available at the circulation desk at Feinberg Library:

  • Chicago Manual of Style. 17th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.
  • Rampolla, Mary Lynn. A Pocket Guide to Writing in History. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2018.
  • Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 9th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2019.

Other online guides to Chicago style include:

Below are sample citations for many different forms of material. “Notes” are the format used in a footnote or endnote. “Shortened notes” are for citing the item the second time and beyond. Bibliography entries, in alphabetical order, follow the notes.

To see a sample paper that puts footnotes and bibliography in context, see https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/cmos_nb_sample_paper.html.

In a footnote or endnote, cite specific pages quoted or referred to. In a bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or article.

Items consulted online should include a reference to their location, either an URL or the name of a database. Journal articles should use a DOI if one is available. If no page numbers are available, refer to a specific chapter or section.

Citing Books in Chicago/Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style

Book, single or multiple authors

Notes
  1. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: New Press, 2010), 151.
  2. Karen E. Fields and Barbara J. Fields, Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life (London: Verso, 2012), 202.
Shortened notes
  1. Alexander, The New Jim Crow, 180.
  2. Fields and Fields, Racecraft, 114.
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press, 2010.

Fields, Karen E., and Barbara J. Fields. Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life. London: Verso, 2012.

Chapter or other part of an edited book

Note
  1. Edward Countryman, “‘Out of the Bounds of the Law’: Northern Land Rioters in the Eighteenth Century,” in The American Revolution, ed. Alfred F. Young (DeKalb, Ill.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976), 40.
Shortened note
  1. Countryman, “‘Out of the Bounds of the Law,’”, 40.
Bibliography entry

Countryman, Edward. “‘Out of the Bounds of the Law’: Northern Land Rioters in the Eighteenth Century.” In The American Revolution, edited by Alfred F. Young, 37–69. DeKalb, Ill.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976.

Edited book or collection, cited as a whole

Note
  1. Alfred F. Young, ed., The American Revolution (DeKalb, Ill.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976), 12.
Shortened note
  1. Young, The American Revolution, 12.
Bibliography entry

Young, Alfred F., ed. The American Revolution. DeKalb, Ill.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976.

Translated book

Note
  1. Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, trans. Richard Philcox (New York: Grove Press, 2008), 132.
Shortened note
  1. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, 132.
Bibliography entry

Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. Translated by Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 2008.

E-book

Notes
  1. Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853 (Auburn: Derby and Miller, 1853), 52-53, https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/northup/northup.html.
  2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 15, doc. 43, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
  3. Jacqueline Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family, from Slavery to the Present (New York: Basic Books, 2009), 122, ProQuest Ebook Central.
  4. Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, Race for Profit: How Banks and the Real Estate Industry Undermined Black Homeownership (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2019), chap. 4, Kindle.
Shortened notes
  1. Northup, Twelve Years a Slave, 52-53.
  2. Kurland and Lerner, Founders’ Constitution, chap. 15, doc. 43.
  3. Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow, 122.
  4. Taylor, Race for Profit, chap. 4.
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family, from Slavery to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853. Auburn: Derby and Miller, 1853. https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/northup/northup.html.

Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. Race for Profit: How Banks and the Real Estate Industry Undermined Black Homeownership. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2019. Kindle.

Citing Articles from Periodicals in Chicago/Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style

Journal article

Notes
  1. W. E. B. Du Bois, “Education and Work,”" Journal of Negro Education 1, no. 1 (1932): 64.
  2. Kimberlé Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review 43, no. 6 (1991): 1255, https://doi.org/10.2307/1229039.
  3. Robin D. G. Kelley, “‘We Are Not What We Seem’: Rethinking Black Working-Class Opposition in the Jim Crow South,” Journal of American History 80, no. 1 (1993): 88, JSTOR.
Shortened notes
  1. Du Bois, “Education and Work,” 64.
  2. Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins,” 1255.
  3. Kelley, “‘We Are Not What We Seem,’” 88.
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43, no. 6 (1991): 1241–1299. https://doi.org/10.2307/1229039.

Du Bois, W. E. B. “Education and Work.” Journal of Negro Education 1, no. 1 (1932): 60–74.

Kelley, Robin D. G. “‘We Are Not What We Seem’: Rethinking Black Working-Class Opposition in the Jim Crow South.” Journal of American History 80, no. 1 (1993): 75–112. JSTOR.

Journal articles with multiple authors

  • 1-3 authors: list all in notes and bibliography.
  • 4-10 authors: list all in the bibliography, but only the first followed by et al. (“and others”) in the notes.
  • More than 10 authors: List the first 7 in the bibliography, followed by et al.
Note
  1. Eric Guiry et al., “Animal Husbandry and Colonial Adaptive Behavior: Isotopic Insights from the La Belle Shipwreck Fauna,” Historical Archaeology 52, no. 4 (December 1, 2018): 685, https://doi.org/10.1007/s41636-018-0142-7.
Shortened note
  1. Guiry et al., “Animal Husbandry and Colonial Adaptive Behavior,” 685.
Bibliography entry

Guiry, Eric, Bradford M. Jones, Susan deFrance, James E. Bruseth, Jeff Durst, and Michael P. Richards. “Animal Husbandry and Colonial Adaptive Behavior: Isotopic Insights from the La Belle Shipwreck Fauna.” Historical Archaeology 52, no. 4 (December 1, 2018): 684–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41636-018-0142-7.

News or magazine article

Notes
  1. Bree Newsome, “The Movement’s Generation Gap,” Atlantic, April 2, 2018, 86.
  2. Larry Buchanan, Quoctrung Bui, and Jugal K. Patel, “Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History,” New York Times, July 3, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/07/03/us/george-floyd-protests-crowd-size.html.
  3. Debra Bruno, “It Turned Out My Hudson Valley Dutch Ancestors Were Slave Owners. Why Had I Never Known That?,” Washington Post, July 26, 2020, Nexis Uni.
  4. Robin D. G. Kelley, “What Did Cedric Robinson Mean by Racial Capitalism?,” Boston Review, January 12, 2017, https://bostonreview.net/race/robin-d-g-kelley-what-did-cedric-robinson-mean-racial-capitalism.
Shortened notes
  1. Newsome, “The Movement’s Generation Gap,” 86.
  2. Buchanan et al., “Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History.”
  3. Bruno, “It Turned Out My Hudson Valley Dutch Ancestors Were Slave Owners.”
  4. Kelley, “What Did Cedric Robinson Mean by Racial Capitalism?”
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Bruno, Debra. “It Turned out My Hudson Valley Dutch Ancestors Were Slave Owners. Why Had I Never Known That?” Washington Post, July 26, 2020. Nexis Uni.

Buchanan, Larry, Quoctrung Bui, and Jugal K. Patel. “Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History.” New York Times, July 3, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/07/03/us/george-floyd-protests-crowd-size.html.

Kelley, Robin D. G. “What Did Cedric Robinson Mean by Racial Capitalism?” Boston Review, January 12, 2017. https://bostonreview.net/race/robin-d-g-kelley-what-did-cedric-robinson-mean-racial-capitalism.

Newsome, Bree. “The Movement’s Generation Gap.” Atlantic, April 2, 2018, 86–87.

Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.

Note
  1. Mogwai (CT), July 4, 2020, comment on Buchanan et al., “Black Lies Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History.”

Book review

Note
  1. Fara Dabhoiwala, “Speech and Slavery in the West Indies,” review of Tacky’s Revolt, by Vincent Brown, New York Review of Books, August 20, 2020, https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2020/08/20/speech-slavery-west-indies/.
Shortened note
  1. Dabhoiwala, “Speech and Slavery.”
Bibliography entry

Dabhoiwala, Fara. “Speech and Slavery in the West Indies.” Review of Tacky’s Revolt by Vincent Brown. New York Review of Books, August 20, 2020. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2020/08/20/speech-slavery-west-indies/.

Citing Other Sources in Chicago/Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style

Videos

Note: If you are accessing a show or film via a streaming service rather than on physical media, you can replace everything after the airing information with the relevant URL.

Notes
  1. 12 Years a Slave, directed by Steve McQueen (2013; Beverly Hills, CA: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2014), DVD.
  2. Watchmen, season 1, episode 8, “A God Walks into Abar,” directed by Nicole Kassell, written by Jeff Jensen and Damon Lindelof, featuring Regina King and Don Johnson, aired December 8, 2019, HBO.
Shortened note
  1. 12 Years a Slave.
  2. “A God Walks into Abar.”
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Jensen, Jeff, and Damon Lindelof, writers. Watchmen, season 1, episode 8, “A God Walks into Abar.” Directed by Nicole Kassell, featuring Regina King and Don Johnson. Aired December 8, 2019, HBO.

McQueen, Steve, dir. 12 Years a Slave. 2013; Beverly Hills, CA: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2014. DVD.

Interview

Note
  1. David Harvey, “David Harvey on Capital,” interview by Daniel Denvir, The Dig, June 20, 2018, audio, 1:10:42, https://www.thedigradio.com/podcast/david-harvey-on-capital/.
Shortened note
  1. Harvey, interview.
Bibliography entry

Harvey, David. “David Harvey on Capital.” Interview by Daniel Denvir. The Dig, June 20, 2018. Audio, 1:10:42. https://www.thedigradio.com/podcast/david-harvey-on-capital/.

Thesis or dissertation

Note
  1. Julius Scott, “The Common Wind: Currents of Afro-American Communication in the Era of the Haitian Revolution” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1987), 58.
Shortened note
  1. Scott, “The Common Wind,” 58.
Bibliography entry

Scott, Julius. “The Common Wind: Currents of Afro-American Communication in the Era of the Haitian Revolution.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1987.

Website content

Include a date of publication or revision when possible; otherwise include an access date (as in example note 1).

Notes
  1. “BLM’s #WhatMatters2020,” Black Lives Matter, accessed July 31, 2020, https://blacklivesmatter.com/what-matters-2020/.
  2. “Institutional Diversity, Equity and Inclusion,” SUNY Plattsburgh, last modified July 17, 2020, https://www.plattsburgh.edu/plattslife/diversity/index.html.
  3. Antionette Carroll, “Designing for Justice,” filmed May 2019 at TEDxHerndon, Herndon, VA, video, 12:46, https://www.ted.com/talks/antionette_carroll_designing_for_justice.
Shortened notes
  1. “BLM’s #WhatMatters2020.”
  2. “Institutional Diversity, Equity and Inclusion.”
  3. Carroll, “Designing for Justice.”
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Black Lives Matter. “BLM’s #WhatMatters2020.” Accessed July 31, 2020. https://blacklivesmatter.com/what-matters-2020/.

Carroll, Antionette. “Designing for Justice.” Filmed May 2019 at TEDxHerndon, Herndon, VA. Video, 12:46. https://www.ted.com/talks/antionette_carroll_designing_for_justice.

SUNY Plattsburgh. “Institutional Diversity, Equity and Inclusion.” Last modified July 17, 2020. https://www.plattsburgh.edu/plattslife/diversity/index.html.

Social media

If only mentioned in passing, social media can be cited in the text or notes and eliminated from the bibliography. If it is an important source for work, add a bibliography entry.

Text

Matt Bruenig argued on Twitter: “Trekking poles should be outlawed in ultramarathon competitions” (@mattbruenig, July 29, 2020).

Notes
  1. Old Hoss Radbourn (@oldhossradbourn), “Day one hundred and thirty-seven. Sat the children down to enjoy a major league base ball game and, for a moment, take our mind off the great plague. This really backfired.” Twitter, July 28, 2020, https://twitter.com/OldHossRadbourn/status/1288198892610256902.
  2. North Country Underground Railroad Museum (@northcountryugrr), “Work has begun on the raised bed celebrating the ‘African American Diaspora of Food Seeds & Plants’”, Instagram photo, June 18, 2020, https://www.instagram.com/p/CBmILaIJtKh/.
Shortened notes
  1. Radbourn, “Day one hundred and thirty-seven.”
  2. Greenishers, June 20, 2020, 3:15 p.m., comment on North Country Underground Railroad Museum, “such a lovely garden.”
Bibliography entry

North Country Underground Railroad Museum. “Work has begun on the raised bed celebrating the ‘African American Diaspora of Food Seeds & Plants.’” Instagram photo, June 18, 2020. https://www.instagram.com/p/CBmILaIJtKh/.

Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.

Note
  1. Colin Read, Facebook message to author, July 31, 2020.

Notes-Bibliography Style Guidelines