List only the first author’s name followed by et al., which is Latin for ‘and others’
If you cite multiple sources with nearly identical author names, you will need to add additional author names to avoid confusion:
If there is no author provided, list the first two words in the source’s title in quotation marks:
If there is no date provided in the source, use the abbreviation n.d. (short for ‘no date’)
Add lower-case letters (a, b, c) next to the years in your reference list entries and use the same letters in your corresponding in-text citations.
Research by McCoy (2020a) demonstrated a correlation between social support and wellness. Additional research showed education was also a significant protective factor (McCoy, 2020b).
First time you cite the source, provide the organization’s name followed by brackets containing the organization’s abbreviation:
Subsequent times you cite the source, use the abbreviation you listed in your first in‐text citation
Provide the full name of the organization in all in‐text citations:
If you want to cite a source mentioned in another source, this is called citing an indirect source. The APA manual suggests using indirect sources only when you cannot locate the original source. However, if you cite an indirect source, you must provide both the original source (the source that first contained the idea) and the secondary source (the source in which you actually read the information). To do this, start your sentence with a signal phrase that notes the original source’s author & year and then end your sentence with an in‐text citation for the secondary source.
Rutter, Kim‐Cohen, and Maughan (2006) reported that untreated adolescent mental health problems tend to persist into adulthood (as cited in Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010, p. 5).
Separate the works with a semi-colon within the parentheses.